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    Posted Jun 26, 2022 23:29
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    Human Dignity Paper

    Eliseo  Ilarraza


    Liberty University


    Dr. Patrick

    June 26, 2022

    Human Dignity Paper


    In this paper, the author covers the following topics below in relationship to equity theory-an editor's summary of how management and leadership are taught in the Bible. Researchers can share what they've found. HD says that everyone is worth more than they can do for themselves. Companies meet the needs of society. Ronald Dworkin, George Kateb, and Jurgen Habermas have stricter ideas about what it means to have dignity. The "Algorithmic Management" (AM) system at Uber assigns, improves, and rates workers. Researchers can find out if AM makes people feel better about themselves. Zimbabwe's policy on e-health puts safety, privacy, fairness, and respect at the top of the list. To use 5G technology in healthcare, you might need skills that are hard to get.

    "Nudge" changes how people act to make them healthier. People and society benefit from nudges. Public-private partnerships are bad for the budget (PPPs). The authors make a theology of socially responsible marketing using a macro-level analysis and normative ethical theory (SRM). With SDR, the government could raise PPPs. The authors say that responsible marketing can make macromarketing better for society. The Bible strikes a balance between individual rights and responsibilities to the community. Monotheism is an old Israelite idea that helps explain how Hebrews treat each other fairly. Everyone had the right to land. Local economies can learn about charity and fairness from the advice of theologians. Generous theology can be rooted. Freire's ideas about "conscientization" are essential. The Bible makes people believe and do incredible things not done by human hands.



    The selected topic is equity theory, described in the following parts. Equity theory is based on the concept that fairness influences people's behaviors and motivations and that inequities in workplace justice will inspire them to seek redress. Equity is a lovely depiction of how the world should convey equality to all individuals regardless of race, age, cultural history, color, or religion. Then, the author will conclude with what is most crucial to incorporate into every part of people's lives: "The biblical principles on which the United States was founded."

    Biblical Narratives

    An Editor's Outline of Opportunities for Further Study: Management and Leadership Theories in Biblical Narratives. The written document includes a list of biblical stories and passages and explains how each might support or align with management and leadership theories in a company. Scholars have the chance to carry out more in-depth research and create academic publications to publish in this or other journals. Readers who would find such activity undesirable are kindly and graciously pardoned by the author. The author welcomes suggestions on what to add or remove from this outline. It is helpful to consider both their interactions with one another and their effects on human society when reading about Joseph and Potiphar, Moses and Aaron, Abraham and Lot, and various other biblical characters in economic and management circumstances. Instead of being the antithesis of job satisfaction results from effort and context. Nebuchadnezzar denied Daniel's request for health, but Jesus' parable about how little faith can blossom into something significant was accepted (Cafferky, 2017).




    CSD/Ts & HD

    CSD/Ts: Catholic Social Doctrine and Teachings Human Dignity (HD) is the concept that every human being possesses intrinsic transcendental value. Leo's encyclical Rerum Novarum (Leo XIII, 1891) laid the groundwork for ethical and economic conduct. Businesses are one mechanism by which society meets the fundamental requirements of its members. Dierksmeier ties together several themes ranging from traditional to contemporary HD appreciation. The illustration provides a more comprehensive summary of the framework's substance. It assists virtue-oriented businesspeople in sorting through complex corporate issues. Applying one's mature viewpoint to comprehend the "should" in each circumstance is wisdom. Honorable behavior is consistent with characteristics such as patience and the ability to tolerate ambiguity. Leaders must treat everyone equitably and prioritize the organization's simple goals over their own (Mea & Sims, 2018). Authors adhere to the individualistic school of philosophy and focus on the relevance of dignity. The idea of dignity that Ronald Dworkin has is crucial to the development of his moral framework. The claim of George Kateb that dignity is an existential value is stated here. Jurgen Habermas maintained that the present notion of human dignity entails an increasing equalization of status. Dworkin, Kateb, and Habermas' analyses of human dignity provide a more rigorous consideration of the various lines of reasoning required to achieve this goal. Social institutions' plan, or telos, would be to respect and improve dignity while minimizing the effects of the surface-level features of the sociohistorical world (McManus, 2019).      


    In recent years, there has been a tremendous growth in the usage of software algorithms to automate human resource management (HRM) activities. This trend can be attributed to the rise of artificial intelligence (AI). The term "algorithmic management" (AM) can be thought of as an umbrella term encompassing data-driven systems that carry out decision-making concerning human resource management (HRM). The research on dignity demonstrates that dignity can also be contingent, meaning that it is a human worth that must be gained and, as a result, must be encouraged. Researchers require a conceptual framework for worker dignity by AM that will permit us to investigate safeguarding inalienable dignity and fostering contingent pride. The term "Algorithmic Management" (AM) was developed to describe how the software algorithms used by Uber make it possible for workers to be "assigned, optimized, and assessed through algorithms and recorded data." Since then, it has been implemented to handle advancements in HRM processes associated with using software algorithms and automation. The automated decision-making is quite profitable for businesses since it enables them to exert greater control over their workforce through automated decision-making with only minimal human involvement.

    AM & CA

    On the other hand, there is a growing school of thought that contends it comes at the expense of the interests of employees. In their discussion, the authors suggest a conceptual framework that may be used to investigate and assess the influence of "algorithmic management" (AM) on workers' dignity. Although the research on AM addresses several issues associated with workers' dignity, there is not yet a consensus on what the concept of worker dignity entails nor a framework to investigate the application of software algorithms in the workplace. As a means of approaching the topic of worker dignity in the context of AM, we propose a conceptual framework founded on a capability approach (CA). This work contributes to the existing literature on AM, which primarily focuses on exploitation and violations of dignity and the protection of that dignity at present. Researchers can broaden our focus and investigate the idea that AM may also serve to facilitate and promote dignity because we are employing a CA. They conclude that their conceptual framework based on CA is an excellent way to look at AM. They then discuss future research directions into the complex relationship between worker dignity and AM systems (Lamers et al., 2022).


    Zimbabwe has put in place various preventative and mitigation strategies to halt the spread of the epidemic and mitigate its devastating effects on the country's populace and its already taxed healthcare infrastructure. Artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), and robotics are some innovative technologies that have been utilized in the fight against the outbreak. The e-health policy of Zimbabwe is governed by ethical principles like safety, confidentiality, equity, and respect for the dignity of the human person. The use of 5G technology in the healthcare industry calls for specific technical capabilities, some of which may not be easily obtainable. It is essential to encrypt any data being transferred from one computer or app to another (Mbunge et al., 2021).

    Emotions & Ethical Reasoning

    Emotions are permitted to have a significant role in ethical decision-making when using the moral foundations' method. This study investigates whether different ethical reasons explain the software's effects. The research has shown that only the sanctity/degradation foundation is negatively connected with thoughts concerning unethical consumer actions. At the outset, Forsyth proposed idealism as one form of personal moral philosophy. It has been demonstrated that idealists tend to have pessimistic attitudes and ideas about using goods and services. Instead of focusing on personal goals, future research in consumer ethics should focus on the significance of moral foundations. An online survey of consumers in the United States was carried out to test the study's hypotheses. The Moral Foundations questionnaire was employed (MFQ) to assess moral foundations. A strong positive association was established between the loyalty/betrayal foundation and favorable opinions for the "active, unlawful" dimension (Chowdhury, 2017).

    The Nudge

    "Nudge" is a behavioral technique to increase individual or societal well-being. The concept of "libertarian paternalism" is commonly used to describe the act of nudging. It gives rise to problems surrounding the consumers' autonomy when it is impossible for them to opt-out of the influence of a nudge. Consumers who believe that System 1 and System 2 nudges are good for society can do so because they support these programs. Using nudges is beneficial not just to individuals but, in some cases, to society. You can better understand the ethics of nudges by researching the level of support that nudges receive from customers. The theory of moral foundations and pressing ethics Results demonstrated that binding foundations (loyalty/betrayal, authority/subversion, and sanctity/degradation) are positively associated with accepting System 1 and System 2 nudges. Individualizing pillars (care/harm, fairness/cheating) support System 2 prompts. Exceptions exist depending on the intended goal of the nudge. Binding foundations moderate the effects of empathy and conservatism on nudge acceptance. Individualizing foundations mitigate the influence of the heart on System 2 nudging. The moral foundation theory is adequate for evaluating nudge acceptability because it links ethical evaluations with customer approval (welfare, fairness, loyalty, authority deference, sanctity). The findings aid in convincing consumers to support nudges (Chowdhury, 2021).


    PPPs Future's Generation

    A fiscal deficit crisis is precipitated by an increase in the number of public-private partnerships (PPPs), which leads to the accumulation of more debt for future generations. Policymakers can manipulate the Social Discount Rate (SDR) to make public-private partnerships appear to be the superior option. It goes against the value for money principle and prevents the public policy from being consistent with ethical theories. A high national debt-to-GDP ratio places the government at risk of a severe economic crisis. Due to the lengthy duration of public-private partnership contracts, the decisions we make today will impact future generations. The budget deficit and the equal allocation of resources across generations are the main consequences of this policy. PPPs raise challenges of equity across generations. The fiscal deficit situation is exacerbated by increasing the debt of future generations due to more PPP agreements. This study investigates how the current SDR value impacts social welfare functions (SWF). There are two sub-questions asked. What is the risk associated with off-balance-sheet PPP debts? From an ethical standpoint, how do SDR-based government policies position society?


    The answers are derived from a discussion of the various SDRs (used in the United Kingdom) based on libertarian, egalitarian, utilitarian, and Rawlsian ethical perspectives. Using the SDR, policymakers can make PPPs appear more attractive than conventional finance. It diminishes the value of money. The authors assert that public policy is not aligned with ethical theories. The SDR trade-off curve in the United Kingdom is between weighted utilitarian and Rawlsian civilizations. Our investigation reveals no evidence that the British government employs a sophisticated tracking mechanism for off-balance sheet debts. Due to uncertainty, it is challenging to predict the final state. The authors believe their analysis provides policymakers with a suitable analytical framework before implementing PPPs (Al Yaqoobi & Ausloos, 2022).


    The objective of macromarketing is to handle marketing difficulties at the system level. The text attempts to clarify the meaning of "socially responsible marketing." Whether marketing initiatives, procedures, and policies contribute to the public interest must be determined. The explanation and justification for caring about and participating in SRM is a social contract. In exchange for the ability to produce and retain money, the social compact requires corporations to protect consumers, workers, and other stakeholders from serious harm. Its deducible ramifications result in marketing organization insights and responsibilities to stakeholders. The authors outline and explain a theology of socially responsible marketing using a macro-level analysis and normative ethical theory (SRM). Using a theory-formation methodology, they propose a literature-based definition of SRM. They explain why a macro and normative-ethical approach, as opposed to a micro and positive-descriptive one, is required to justify the features of SRM. They investigate and explain why the origins of an authentic SRM theory can be recognized in marketing history, corporate social responsibility, institutional economics, and moral philosophy literature. It demonstrates that the obligation to engage in socially responsible marketing is rooted in a social contract. They advise those interested in responsible marketing for a better society and globe to embrace a macromarketing viewpoint of constructive participation. We conclude with a brief research plan for furthering marketing's use of SRM (Laczniak & Shultz, 2020).

    Biblical History

    A Christian sociologist argues that treating the Bible as holy history that should not be questioned damages our understanding of the historical record. The Bible can guide the world's most abiding social question: balancing individual rights and social duties. The Hebrews were nomads who arrived from the Arabian Peninsula and settled in the 1330s. They were rural people who encountered an older, urbanized, cosmopolitan culture. Canaanite beliefs differed from urban Canaanites' beliefs because they experienced the world differently. Land Tenure and the Biblical Idea of Social Justice are vital to understanding early Israelite religion. After the fall of Babylon, the scrolls of the Old Testament took on a new meaning.

    Social Justice

    What links YHWH with a universal land ethic based on justice? The Bible should be read primarily as the history of the people of Israel as they developed a unique understanding of social justice. One way of making sense of the Hebrew concept of social justice is monotheism, not as an abstract theological proposition but as an experiential notion tied to the organization of Hebrew life. Monotheism was a social innovation that made all people equal. Egalitarian land tenure was the financial result. Since the land was seen as a gift from God, it was used to promote social equality. Monotheism remains an ideal that has not been achieved because land tenure arrangements create a social hierarchy that legitimizes control by elites and undermines a universal system of values. The modern world has yet to resolve the problem of social inequality, but a better understanding of the Bible may help us find a way (Giesen, 2021).

    Moral Conscience of Grace

    Biblical theologians can confront local economies by presenting ancient wisdom about generosity and equality in a society where economies have no moral conscience. Stephan Joubert contends that managing the current economic context requires one to give just as much consideration, if not more, to whether there is systemic equality or equity. A robust foundation can be established for developing a theology of generosity by utilizing the excellent practices of the churches founded by Paul. In the third verse of 1 Corinthians chapter 16, the term "grace" refers to the grace that God has bestowed upon us. The grace we extend to others via our giving is "reciprocal." In 2 Corinthians 8:13–15, Paul makes the case that one person's wealth can be used to satisfy the requirements of another person. In his disagreement with Philemon, which is recorded in Colossians 4:1, Paul makes a theological point. Both Joubert and Barclay point out that the speaker is trying to make us feel like we must do something with his speech (McKnight, 2021).


    Klaus Nürnberger

    Klaus Nürnberger is one of the most influential South African figures in biblical theology on economic issues, despite receiving little recognition for his work. Interdisciplinarity is something that Nürnsberger brings to the table, which helps pave the way for future engagements in the emerging post-secular era. In the movie "Nuremberg," the poor are never solely portrayed as either victims or perpetrators. Concepts like those of conscientization, developed by Paulo Freire, were essential to the discussion. The privatization of religion in the modern era goes hand in hand with the feeling of hopelessness and despondence that comes with being in a hopeless economic situation. The biblical witness is the source of faith, leading to actions in the world. Nürnberger is entirely aware that the Bible has changed its existence. The fulfillment of a person's potential entails acknowledging not only their physical but also their spiritual requirements at the same time. The Bible is widely accepted as having been written according to historical events, and it is believed to contain "divine truth." To a substantial extent, Christianity can be understood as a secular appropriation of the concerns raised in the Bible. According to him, the same thing is possible with capitalism. People are increasingly likely to think that religious practices are a normal and natural part of everyday life (Lombaard, 2021).              


    Al Yaqoobi, A., & Ausloos, M. (2022). An intergenerational issue: The equity issues due to public-private partnerships; the critical aspect of the social discount rate choice for future generations. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 15(2), 1–27.

    Cafferky, M. E. (2017, September 22). Management & leadership theories in scripture narratives: An editor's outline of opportunities for further study. 20(2).

    Chowdhury, R. I. (2017). The moral foundations of consumer ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 158(3), 585–601.

    Chowdhury, R. I. (2021). The ethics of nudging: Using moral foundations theory to understand consumers' approval of nudges. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 56(2), 703–742.

    Giesen, D. (2021). Land tenure and the biblical idea of social justice. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 80(5), 1323–1343.

    Laczniak, G., & Shultz, C. (2020). Toward a doctrine of socially responsible marketing (srm): A macro and normative-ethical perspective. Journal of Macromarketing, 41(2), 201–231.

    Lamers, L., Meijerink, J., Jansen, G., & Boon, M. (2022). A capability approach to worker dignity under algorithmic management. Ethics and Information Technology, 24(1), 1–15.

    Lombaard, C. (2021). Biblical witness and economy in the writings of Klaus nürnberger. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, 77(3), 1–10.

    Mbunge, E., Fashoto, S. G., Akinnuwesi, B., Metfula, A., Simelane, S., & Ndumiso, N. (2021). Ethics for integrating emerging technologies to contain covid ‐19 in zimbabwe. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 3(5), 876–890.

    McKnight, S. (2021). From timely exegesis to contemporary ecclesiology: Relevant hermeneutics and provocative embodiment of faith in a corona-defined world – generosity during a pandemic. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, 77(4), 1–8.

    McManus, M. (2019). A critical legal conception of human dignity. Journal of Human Rights, 18(1), 57–75.

    Mea, W. J., & Sims, R. R. (2018). Human dignity-centered business ethics: A conceptual framework for business leaders. Journal of Business Ethics, 160(1), 53–69.



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    Eliseo Ilarraza
    PhD student
    OLLU Worden school of social work
    Brooklyn NY


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